Tuesday, October 27, 2009

Black hole

Black holes are nothing which has more powerful gravitational force than earth. Due to this gravitational force, any object enters into it will be pulled inside by this gravitational force and can’t escape outside. Even the light which enters cannot escape. Black hole is 10 to 15 times as massive as the sun. Black holes are formed by a larger explosion of a star under goes supernova explosion. Due to this explosion a massive burned out stellar remnant will remain. The remnant will collapse itself. Due to this it becomes ‘0’ volume and infinite density. This is termed as “singularity”. As the density increases the light rays emitted from stars are bent down drastically and wrapped around the stars. Any emitted photon which enters inside this wrap will not leave out side. When a star reaches infinite density light also can’t escape. This termed as “Black hole”. Even a black hole can absorb a huge planet like earth easily. We don’t need to afraid because the closest black hole near the earth was too far from many light years.

Monday, October 26, 2009

Milky Way Galaxy

The picture represents Milky Way Galaxy. Our solar system belongs to “Milky Way Galaxy”. Milky Way Galaxy is approximately 100,000 light-year in diameter. The thickness of the disk is about 1,000 light years. Galaxy is surrounded by a disk of gas, dust and stars. It seems to be in spiral shape in structure. It spins in logarithmic spiral shape. The centre of Milky Way is termed as ‘Galactic Core’. Around this Galactic core our solar system is revolving far beyond. There are many numbers of solar systems around in one galaxy. Even there are many different types of galaxies are there. Our sun is termed as Local spur in galactic core. The disk is surrounded by globular clusters and many old stars. Our whole solar systems need about 220 million years to complete one orbit to the Galactic Center with a speed of 250 km/sec. The disk has many arms. They are Sagittarius Arm, Centaurus Arm, Cygnus Arm, Perseus Arm, Carina Arm and Orion Arm. Our solar system belongs to the minor arm called Orion Arm or Orion Spur.

Sunday, October 25, 2009


Meteoroids derived from an Asteroid. When asteroids are pulled inside the gravitational force of Earth collision occurs. Due to the force, asteroids splitted into tons of pieces. When the pieces of asteroids reaches the atmosphere some are burned completely. While it enters into the earth it becomes smaller in size. The pieces which left over are called meteorite. The pieces which fall from the sky are termed as “meteor shower”. The meteorite contains 92.8% composed of silicate stone, 5.7 percent composed of iron and nickel. It is also called as shooting star. Meteoroids travel around the sun in a variety of orbits and at various velocities. The fastest ones move at about 26 miles per second. Meteoroids also cause tiny damage to satellites. Most of the meteors are viewed visibly in the desert region.


Asteroids are smaller solar system which revolves around the orbit of the Sun. They are also called as “planetoids” or “minor planets”. The first asteroid was discovered in 1801 named ‘Ceres’. Large no of asteroids are found between planet Mars and Jupiter. They are called as “Asteroid Belt”. Asteroid looks like a rocky and metallic objects. Some scientists believe the asteroids are formed by breakage of planets by a huge collision. If the breakage of asteroids gathered into an single object the size comes around half the diameter of an moon. Even the Jurassic period came to an end by Asteroids. The satellites which revolve around our earth also has damaged by these asteroids.

Thursday, October 22, 2009


Comets are stars which has tail like structure. The word Comet derived from Greek i.e., hair of the head. Comet is a composition of dust, water ice, rock, ammonia, carbon monoxide, methane and carbon dioxide. Even comets are called as “dirty snowballs”. The dust particles in the comet are seemed as tail when we seeing. When the comets moves in high speed range, the dust particles are left behind. Hence the formation of tail like structure appeared. In solar system collisions appeared drastically between comets and planet or moon. In ancient history, these comets are seen as bad luck for kings. They thought that the king would die if the comet appears.

Monday, October 19, 2009


The smallest dinosaur in Jurassic period is Compsognathus, Microraptor, Parvicursor and Caenagnathasia. The picture represents Compsognathus dinosaur. The Microraptor is a bird type dinosaur. The Compsognathus lasted 62 million years long in Jurassic period. The size of the Compsognathus is just like our modern hen. It seems like an undressed hen. It ran on two back legs. The speed is about 25 miles per hour. The tail of the dinosaur is long than the body. It weighs up to 10 pounds. Due to its tiny structure, it runs fast. The teeth are so sharp to chew and eat. The head of this type was probably the size of our palm. It has no hair. Hence it makes its body warm and heat. If the air was to be cold it would make it hard for him to run fast, and if it could not move, the bigger animals would eat him all up. It’s a carnivorous. The fossils found in Germany, which is 89cm long and in France with 125cm.

Friday, October 16, 2009


Image represents Ichthyosaurs. It is the largest marine animals of the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. Ichthyosaurs means “fish lizard”. They appeared 245 million years ago. They are considered as top aquatic predators. It swim up to 40 km/h. They lay eggs. It grows up to 2 to 4 m in length. They weigh up to 163 to 168 kg depends upon size. They look in gigantic appearance. Under these Ichthyosaurs there are many types. It seems to be dolphins but they were predators. Their embryos fossils founded in England, Wales.

Tuesday, October 13, 2009


The bird which you are seen is called as “ Archaeopteryx “. These kind of birds lived around 150-145 million years ago. These bird fossils were found in southern Germany. The growth of the bird is about 1.6 ft in length. It was discovered in 1861. Unlike our modern birds it has small teeth, long bony tail, broad wings, hyper extensible second toes i.e., killing claw and three fingers with claws. It has the characteristic of small dinosaur. There are many controversies during expedition i.e., whether they belong to birds family or dinosaur family.


The animal which you are seen is called as “ Megatherium “. It lives around 5 million years agoin the region of South America. Megatherium is one of the largest mammals. It weighs 5 tons, i.e., it seems to be a African elephant. It seems like a bear shaped in structure, but it has a long and strong tail which would balance while standing. Like bear it stands in two legs while eating food. It has a long tounge, which is used to pull leaves into its mouth. The teeth are too strong, that hard fibrous food could easily be grinded and crushed. These animals are hunted by many scavengers.

Sunday, October 11, 2009

Neanderthal man

Early mankind is called as " Neanderthal man ". In historic age mankind are grouped together for survival from man eating animals. For hibernation and for food they moved from one place to another place. They lived in caves, later they lived in hut built with animal bones and with tree branches. Even they form groups among themselves. They will fight among themselves, if any other group members enter into their surroundings. Even some are cannibals. i.e., they eat human fleshes. They have huge competition for females. To have sex with females, they even fight among themselves. Food and sex is the main part of their life’s.

Wednesday, October 7, 2009

Saber Tooth Tiger

The Saber Tooth Tiger is an ice age animal which lived 20 million years ago. They are impressive carnivores that ever have lived. Two different types of saber toothed tigers lived. It was a fierce predator about 4-5 feet (1.2-1.5 m) long and 3 feet (0.9 m) tall. It weighed about 440 lbs (200 kg). Their canines range from 4 – 7 inches. Canies are nothing but it is the front teeth of Saber tiger. Geological report says that Saber Tooth Tiger lived in some part of North America and South America because their fossils founded in this region. They mainly feasted on large animals like horses, buffalo, deer, and antelope. 


The picture represents Woolly Mamooth. Mammoths are extinct elephant-like animals that were adapted to cold weather. They are herbivores. Their fossils found in Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America. Mammoths lived during the Pleistocene epoch from 1.6 million to about 10,000 years ago. Most mammoths died out at the end of the last Ice Age. These creatures are hunted by humans for food, their skin is used to protect from cold. Their body is covered with thick layer of shaggy hair, up to 50 cm (20 in) long. The tusks were used in mating rituals, for protection, and for digging in the snow for food. 

Tyrannosaurus rex

The biggest carnivorous dinosaur is Tyrannosaurus rex. It walks on two powerful legs. The head part consists of huge jaws with pointed, replaceable teeth and well-developed jaw muscles. It had tiny arms, each with two fingers. It ranges from 40 feet (12.4 m) long, about 15 to 20 feet (4.6 to 6 m) tall. It weighs up to 5 to 7 tons. Their eyeballs range about 3 inches. Its prey is plant-eating dinosaurs. They run up to 15 mph (24 kph). Their tooth is up to 9 inches. Tyrannosaurus rex fossils have been found in western North America and Mongolia. Tyrannosaurus rex is one of the largest terrestrial carnivores of all time.

Monday, October 5, 2009

Pears are available in rounded shape with nipple at top edge. The skin of the fruit ranges in color from green, yellow, red, brown, pink, or a combination of these colors. Pear flesh is white and juicy and grainy in texture. Pears, like similar fruits are rich in dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals. They are excellent for eating out of hand and in salads. The native of pears are from Europe and Asia. The tree can grow upto 20m high. Pears contain much kalium and riboflavin. Pears are good for the skin and contain plenty of fibers. The pear is commercially the second most important of the world’s deciduous fruit trees, exceeded only by the apple.


Plums are available in many varieties. There are 140 varieties. Among them black and red plums are famous. It grows up to 5 to 7m. The fruit size ranges from 3 to 6cm. Plums provide potassium, soluble and insoluble fiber, phytochemicals that function as antioxidants as well as some iron and Vitamin A. It acts as good digestive agent. It contains vitamin A, calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium and fiber. Plums are free of sodium and cholesterol. In India plums are called as “ Ooty Apple “. Plums are used to make jams or syrups.


The fruit is round shaped with vertical stripes. It is greenish yellow in colour and tastes sour. This fruit is eaten along with salt. This fruit contains Vitamin C. It is used as the main ingredient in the ayurvedic tonic tonics, hair oils and it is also used along with several other herbs as an ayurvedic medicines. It helps in cleansing the mouth, and strengthens teeth and bones. It increases the red blood cell count and helps to promote good health. It helps to reduce pitter. It also has antioxidant properties. Amla has laxative properties and therefore useful in the treatment of constipation and piles. The dried amla fruit is useful in the treatment of hemorrhage, diarrhea and dysentery.


Lemon is considered as leading acid citrus fruit. Lemon is available in green and yellow. When the fruit is ripen colour of the fruit will be in yellow. The native of lemon is Northern India. Lemon tree can grows up to 10 to 20 ft. The skin layer of the lemon is available in thick and thin. The thin layer fruit contains more juices. Slices of lemon are served as a garnish on fish or meat or with iced or hot tea, to be squeezed for the flavorful juice. Lemon is used in candies also. Lemon are available in juices, concentrated and frozen, or dehydrated and powdered, is primarily used for lemonade. In India lemon is used as pickle. Even lemon is used as cleaning agent. It is important in perfume blending and especially in colognes. Lemon oil is used in furniture polishes, detergents, soaps and shampoos.